Aleister Crowley was an occultist, yogi, mystic, ceremonial magician, and sexual revolutionist. Born Edward Alexander Crowley on October 12th, 1875, he was dubbed "The Wickedest Man In the World"; the term first appeared in 1928 in John Bull, a tabloid pictorial of his day. He also named himself "The Great Beast", after the Book of Revelation. Other interests and accomplishments were wide-ranging - Crowley was a chess master, mountain climber, poet, writer, painter, astrologer, and social critic. Crowley died on December 1st, 1947.
Edward Alexander Crowley was born in Leamington, Warwickshire, England, between 11:00pm and 12 midnight on 12 October 1875.
His father, Edward Crowley, once maintained a lucrative family brewery business and was retired at the time of Aleister's birth. His mother, Emily Bertha Bishop, drew roots from a Devon and Somerset family.
Aleister grew up in a staunch Plymouth Brethren household. His father, after retiring from his daily duties as a brewer, took up the practice of preaching at a fanatical pace. Daily Bible studies and private tutoring were mainstays in young Aleister's childhood; however, after his fathers death, his mothers' efforts at indoctrinating her son in the Christian faith only served to provoke Aleister's skepticism. As a child, young Aleister's constant rebellious behavior displeased his devout mother to such an extent she would chastize him by calling him "The Beast" (from the Book of Revelation), an epithet that Crowley would later happily adopt for himself. He objected to the labelling of what he saw as life's most worthwhile and enjoyable activities as "sinful."
In response, Crowley created his own philosophical system, Occult Sciences, a synthesis of various Eastern mystical systems (including Hinduism, Buddhism, Tantra, the predecessor to Western sex magick, Zoroastrianism and the many systems of Yoga) fused with the Western occult sciences of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn and the many reformed rituals of Freemasonry, as well as inspiration from the Knights Templar, he created the Ordo Templi Orientis (O.T.O.). This system is founded in scientific skepticism. His undergraduate studies in chemistry at Trinity College, Cambridge helped forge the scientific skepticism that later culminated in the many-volumed and unparalleled occult publication, The Equinox.
Involved as a young adult in the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, he first studied mysticism with and made enemies of William Butler Yeats and Arthur Edward Waite. Crowley voiced the view that Waite was a pretentious bore, through searing critiques of Waite's writings and editorials of other authors' writings.
His friend and former Golden Dawn associate Allan Bennett introduced him to the ideas of Buddhism, while Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers, acting leader of the Golden Dawn organization, acted as his early mentor in western magick but would later become his enemy. Several decades after Crowley's participation in the Golden Dawn, Mathers claimed copyright protection over a particular ritual and sued Crowley for infringement after Crowley's public display of the ritual. In a book of fiction entitled Moonchild, Crowley portrayed Mathers as the primary villain, including him as a character named SRMD, using the abbreviation of Mathers' magical name. Arthur Edward Waite also appeared in Moonchild as a villain named Arthwaite, while Bennett appeared in Moonchild as the main character's wise mentor, Simon Iff.
While he did not officially break with Mathers until 1904, Crowley lost faith in this teacher's abilities soon after the schism in the Golden Dawn (if not before). In 1900, Crowley traveled to Mexico and continued his magical studies in isolation. AC's writings suggest that he discovered the word Abrahadabra during this time.
In October of 1901, after practising Raja Yoga for some time, he said he had reached a state he called dhyana — one of many states of unification in thoughts that are described succinctly and vividly in Magick Book IV (See Crowley on egolessness). 1902 saw him writing the essay Berashith (the first word of Genesis), in which he gave meditation (or restraint of the mind to a single object) as the means of attaining his goal. The essay describes ceremonial magic as a means of training the will, and of constantly directing one's thoughts to a given object through ritual. In his 1903 essay, Science and Buddhism, Crowley urged an empirical approach to Buddhist teachings.
He said that a mystical experience in 1904 while on vacation in Cairo, Egypt, led to his founding of the religious philosophy known as Thelema. Aleister's wife Rose started to behave in an odd way, and this led him to think that some entity had made contact with her. At her instructions, he performed an invocation of the Egyptian god Horus on March 20 with (he wrote) "great success". According to Crowley, the god told him that a new magical Aeon had begun, and that A.C. would serve as its prophet. Rose continued to give information, telling Crowley in detailed terms to await a further revelation. On 8 April and for the following two days at exactly noon he heard a voice, dictating the words of the text, Liber AL vel Legis, or The Book of the Law, which Crowley transcribed. The voice claimed to be that of Aiwass (or Aiwaz "the minister of Hoor-paar-kraat," or Horus, the god of force and fire, child of Isis and Osiris) and self-appointed conquering lord of the New Aeon, announced through his chosen scribe "the prince-priest the Beast."
Portions of the book are in numerical cipher, which Crowley claimed the inability to decode. Thelemic dogma (to the extent that Thelema has dogma) explains this by pointing to a warning within the Book of the Law — the speaker supposedly warned that the scribe, Ankh-af-na-khonsu (Aleister Crowley), was never to attempt to decode the ciphers, for to do so would end only in folly. The later-written The Law is For All sees Crowley warning everyone not to discuss the writing amongst fellow critics, for fear that a dogmatic position would arise. While he declared a "new Equinox of the Gods" in early 1904, supposedly passing on the revelation of March 20 to the occult community, it took years for Crowley to fully accept the writing of the Book of the Law and follow its doctrine. Only after countless attempts to test its writings did he come to embrace them as the official doctrine of the New Aeon of Horus. The remainder of his professional and personal careers were spent expanding the new frontiers of scientific illuminism.
Crowley was notorious in his lifetime — a frequent target of attacks in the tabloid press, which labeled him "The Wickedest Man in the World" to his evident amusement. At one point, he was expelled from Italy after having established a sort of commune, the organization of which was based on his personal philosophies, the Abbey of Thelema, at Cefalu, Sicily.
In 1934 Crowley was declared bankrupt after losing a court case in which he sued the artist Nina Hamnett for calling him a black magician in her 1932 book, Laughing Torso. In addressing the jury, Mr. Justice Swift said: "I have been over forty years engaged in the administration of the law in one capacity or another. I thought that I knew of every conceivable form of wickedness. I thought that everything which was vicious and bad had been produced at one time or another before me. I have learnt in this case that we can always learn something more if we live long enough. I have never heard such dreadful, horrible, blasphemous and abominable stuff as that which has been produced by the man (Crowley) who describes himself to you as the greatest living poet."
Aleister Crowley died of a respiratory infection in a Hastings boarding house on December 1, 1947, at the age of 72. According to some accounts he died on December 5, 1947. He was penniless and addicted to heroin, which had been prescribed for his asthma and bronchitis, at the time.
His last words have been reported as, "I am perplexed.", though he did not die alone and the only other person with him, Patricia "Deirdre" MacAlpine, the mother of his son, denied this and claimed he said "Sometimes I hate myself". According to MacAlpine, Crowley remained bedridden for the last few days of his life, but was in light spirits and conversational. Readings at the cremation service in nearby Brighton included one of his own works, Hymn to Pan, and newspapers referred to the service as a black mass. Brighton council subsequently resolved to take all necessary steps to prevent such an incident occurring again.
Science, magic, and sexuality
Crowley claimed to use a scientific method to study what people at the time called "spiritual" experiences, making "The Method of Science, the Aim of Religion" the catchphrase of his magazine The Equinox. By this he meant that mystical experiences should not be taken at face value, but critiqued and experimented with in order to arrive at their underlying religious meaning. In this he may be considered to foreshadow Dr. Timothy Leary, who at one point sought to apply the same method to psychedelic drug experiences. Yet like Leary's, Crowley's method has received little "scientific" attention outside the circle of Thelema's practitioners.
Crowley's magical and initiatory system has amongst its innermost reaches a set of teachings on sex "magick." He frequently expressed views about sex that were radical for his time, and published numerous poems and tracts combining pagan religious themes with sexual imagery both heterosexual and homosexual.
Sex Magick is the use of the sex act—or the energies, passions or arousal states it evokes—as a point upon which to focus the will or magical desire for effects in the non-sexual world. In this, Crowley was inspired by Paschal Beverly Randolph, an American author writing in the 1870s who wrote (in his book Eulis!) of using the "nuptive moment" (orgasm) as the time to make a "prayer" for events to occur.
It's based on the belief that the most powerful moment of human existence is the orgasm. Sex Magic is the art of utilizing sexual orgasm to evoke a reality and/or expand consciousness. All senses and psychic powers are heightened during orgasm. It is a moment when a window opens to the unlimited abundance of the unlimited universe.
The religious or mystical system which Crowley founded, into which most of his nonfiction writings fall, he named Thelema. Thelema combines a radical form of philosophical libertarianism, akin in some ways to Nietzsche, with a mystical initiatory system derived in part from the Golden Dawn.
Chief among the precepts of Thelema is the sovereignty of the individual will: "Do what thou wilt shall be the whole of the Law." Crowley's idea of will, however, is not simply the individual's desires or wishes, but also incorporates a sense of the person's destiny or greater purpose: what he termed the "Magick Will." Much of the initiatory system of Thelema is focused on discovering one's true will, true purpose, or higher self. Much else is devoted to an Eastern-inspired dissolution of the individual ego, as a means to that end (see Choronzon).
The second precept of Thelema is "Love is the law, love under will" — and Crowley's meaning of "Love" is as complex as that of "Will". It is frequently sexual: Crowley's system, like elements of the Golden Dawn before him, sees the dichotomy and tension between the male and female as fundamental to existence, and sexual "magick" and metaphor form a significant part of Thelemic ritual.
Thelema draws on numerous older sources and, like many other new religious movements of its time, combines "Western" and "Eastern" traditions. Its chief Western influences include the Golden Dawn, Kabbalah, and elements of Freemasonry; Eastern influences include aspects of yoga, Taoism, and Tantra.
Within the subject of occultism Crowley wrote widely, penning commentaries on the Tarot (The Book of Thoth), yoga (Book Four), the Kabbalah (Sepher Sephiroth), astrology (The General Principles of Astrology), and numerous other subjects. He also wrote a Thelemic "translation" of the Tao Te Ching, based on earlier English translations since he knew little or no Chinese. Like the Golden Dawn mystics before him, Crowley evidently sought to comprehend the entire human religious and mystical experience in a single philosophy. He self-published many of his books, expending the majority of his inheritance to disseminate his views. Many of his fiction works, such as the "Simon Iff" detective stories and Moonchild have not received significant notice outside of occult circles. However his fictional work Diary Of A Drug Fiend has received acclaim from those involved in the field of substance abuse rehabilitation.
Crowley's most grandiose work is The Equinox, a large bi-annual periodical that served as the official organ of the Argenteum Astrum (A∴A∴), and, later, the O.T.O. It was subtitled "The Review of Scientific Illuminism" and remains one of the definitive works on occultism.
Crowley's other major works include:
- The Book of Lies
- The Holy Books of Thelema
- Konx om Pax
He also wrote a short, highly readable introduction to yoga (Eight Lectures on Yoga) and a polemic arguing against George Bernard Shaw's interpretation of the Gospels in his preface to Androcles and the Lion. Crowley's piece was edited by Francis King and published as Crowley on Christ, and shows him at his erudite and witty best.
Crowley had a peculiar sense of humour. In his Book Four he includes a chapter purporting to illuminate the Qabalistic significance of Mother Goose nursery rhymes. In regards to Humpty Dumpty, for instance, he recommends the occult authority "Ludovicus Carolus" -- better known as Lewis Carroll. In a footnote to the chapter he admits that he had invented the alleged meanings, to show that one can find occult "Truth" in everything.
Many Crowley biographies relate the story of L. Ron Hubbard and Jack Parsons and their attempt to create a "moonchild" (from Crowley's novel of that name). In Crowley's own words, "Apparently Parsons and Hubbard or somebody is producing a moonchild. I get fairly frantic when I contemplate the idiocy of these louts." Clearly the admiration Hubbard had for Crowley was not reciprocated.
More famously still, he baited Christians by naming himself To Mega Therion, or "The Great Beast" of the Book of Revelation.
Crowley was also a published, if minor, poet. He wrote the 1929 "Hymn to Pan", perhaps his most widely read and anthologised poem. Three pieces by Crowley, "The Quest", "The Neophyte", and "The Rose and the Cross", appear in the 1917 collection The Oxford Book of English Mystical Verse. Crowley's unusual sense of humour is on display in White Stains, an 1898 collection of pornographic verse pretended to be "the literary remains of George Archibald Bishop, a neuropath of the Second Empire;" the volume is prefaced with a notice that says that "The Editor hopes that Mental Pathologists, for whose eyes alone this treatise is destined, will spare no precaution to prevent it falling into other hands."
Crowley's birthday, October 12th, is celebrated by Thelemites as 'Crowleymas' (a play on Christmas).
To pee or not to pee: that is the question:
Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer
the slings and arrows of outrageous stricture
Or to take arms against a close urethra
And by abscission, end it? To fuck; to come:
No more; and by a come to say we end
The cockstand and the thousand natural lusts
That flesh is heir to. 'Tis a consummation
Devoutly to be wished. To fuck: to come:
To come, perchance to clap! Ay, there's the rub.
For from that come of fuck what clap
Aleister Crowleys parody of Hamlet
Hilbery: cross-examining Crowley for the Defense) Are you asking for damages because your reputation has suffered?
Hilbery: For how many years you have been publicly denounced as the worst man in the world?
Crowley: Only by the lowest kind of newspaper.
Hilbery: Did any paper call you "the Monster of Wickedness"?
Crowley: I can't remember.
Hilbery: Have you, from the time of your adolescence, openly defied all moral convention?
Hilbery: And proclaimed your contempt for all the documents of Christianity?
Crowley: Not all the doctrines...
Hilbery: Did you take to yourself the designation of The Beast 666?
Hilbery: Do you call yourself The Master Therion?
Hilbery: What does Therion mean?
Crowley: Great Wild Beast.
Hilbery: Do these titles convey a fair expression of your practice and outlook on life?
Crowley: "The Beast 666" only means 'sunlight'. You can call me "Little Sunshine."
(Laughter in the court)
Dialogue between Crowley and prosecuting councel malcolm Hilbery KC when he was attempting to sue Nina Hamnett for a libel.
Source: Devil's Dominion: The Complete Story of Hell and Satanism in the Modern World by Anthony Masters
- What it would be like to have met AC in Cairo
- How To Summon Ye Dæmon Aleister Crowley To Visible Appearance
- Lashtal - Home Of The Aleister Crowley Society
- Crowley Connections
- The Secret Temple - Colin S. McLeod's research on the history of Boulaq Museum, where Crowley claimed to have seen the Stele of Revealing with the catalogue number 666 in 1904
- An occult adventure novel circa 1899 (35 chapters) featuring among aothers, Aleister Crowley, Thomas Edison, Adolf Hitler, Alfred Jarry, Mark Twain, Bram Stoker, Oscar Wilde and W. B. Yeats...you have to change the number in the url/address bar, gd01 to gd02, gd03 to gd04 ect.
- Hitler's Doppelganger, Hitler and Crowely
- A partial list of books, pamphlets & other miscellaneous items which offer historical information about the life of Crowley.
- Aleister Crowley & Friends
- Perdurabo: includes movie stills
- Hosts full length Crowley documentaries (free)
- Aleister Crowley - The Great Beast Speaks" is a CD with the only known recording of Crowley. Free samples.
- The Confessions of Aleister Crowley. The Online Text
- The Poetry Of Aleister Crowley
- Jack the Ripper by Aleister Crowley: article discussing Robert Donson, Vittoria Cremers, Aleister Crowley and the "occult" solution to the murders. Only one hundred were printed.
- The 'Ape of Thoth' (APE for short) is a general-purpose text search engine whose database consists of Thelemic Holy Books and other important verse-based works by Aleister Crowley. The search methods provide instant access to works such as Liber AL vel Legis, Liber Cordis Cincti Serpente, and many other documents. As an added bonus, the infamous Book of the Inlaws is included.
- The Banned Lecture GILLES de RAIS to have been delivered before the University Poetry Society by ALEISTER CROWLEY on the evening of Monday, Feb.3rd.1930
- Tao Te Ching Translated by A. Crowley
- The Herb Dangerous Part III The Poem of Hashish by Charles Baudelaire. Translated by Aleister Crowley
- THE KING OF DEPRAVITY by Giovanni Dadomo
- Stairway to where?
- Jimmy Page and Kenneth Anger - Lucifer Rising
- MR. CROWLEY by Ozzy Osbourne Review by G.M.Kelly August 2000 E.V.
- PG-13 - English - Supernatural/Drama - the manor appears to be based on Boleskine House, the one-time residence of real-life “evil magician” Aleister Crowley
- Alan Moore’s Promethea
- Preliminary Explorations of an Occult Trickster Aesthetic
- A short essay on Crowley's influence on Hubbard.
- A Fabulation of Aleister Crowley
- Crowley in the Valley
- The Guru/Messiah Syndrome: similarities between Carl Jung and Aleister Crowley
- Rotten.com library: Crowley
- Introduction to Crowley (in Five Voices) by Tim Maroney
- I, Crowley Last Confession of the Beast 666 - Almost by Snoo Wilson
- Montauk Revisited unmasks the occult forces that were behind the science and technology used in the Montauk Project. An ornate tapestry is revealed which interweaves the mysterious associations of the Cameron clan with the genesis of American rocketry, the bizarre history of the electronic transistor and the magick of Aleister Crowley, Jack Parsons and L. Ron Hubbard.
- Absinthe Books X - Aleister Crowley and the Green Goddess
- Amazon Search Results: Aleister Crowley